Background Resources


[1] Saus E, Johnsen B, Eid J, Riisem P, Andersen R, Thayer J. The effect of brief situational awareness training in a police shooter simulator: An experimental study.  Military Psychology. 2010;18:S3-S21.

[2] Cant R, Cooper SJ. The benefits of debriefing as formative feedback in nurse education. Australian Journal of Advanced  Nursing 2011; 29(1) 37-47

[3] Cant R, Cooper S. Simulation based learning in nurse education: a systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2010; 66: 3-15.

[4] Waldner, M. H., & Olson, J. K. Taking the patient to the classroom: applying theoretical frameworks to simulation in nursing education. International Journal of Nursing Education 2007; Scholarship 4, Article18

[5] Lisko, S., & O’Dell, V. Integration of Theory and Practice: Experiential Learning Theory and Nursing Education. Nursing Education Perspectives 2010; 31(2), 106.

[6] Duchowski, A. T. Eye Tracking Methodology: Theory and Practice, 2007. Springer-Verlag

PROJECT OUTPUT (to date Nov 2013)

  1. Cooper S. Porter J. Peach L.  Measuring situation awareness in emergency setting: a systematic review of tools and outcomes. Open Access Emergency Medicine. In Press – accepted 1/11/13
  2. Quested A, Williams B, Cooper S. Can eye-tracking technology improve situational awareness in paramedic clinical education? Open Access Emergency Medicine. 2013; 5; 23 – 28.

Papers under development

  • Participant performance summary
  • Video debriefing using eye tracking
  • Situation awareness development using SA ratings, eye tracking and debriefing techniques
  • Area of interest analysis


Clinical simulation

Bosek, M., S. Li, et al. (2007). “Working with standardized patients: a primer.” International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship 4(1): 1-12.

Brewster, L. P., Risucci D A., et al. (2005). “Management of adverse surgical events: a structured education module for residents.” Amer J Surg 190(5): 687.

Cant R, Cooper SJ. The benefits of debriefing as formative feedback in nurse education. Australian Journal of  Advanced  Nursing 2011; 29(1) 37-47.. Open access At:

Cant R. & Cooper S.  (2010) Simulation-based learning in nurse education: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 66, 1, 3-15. (Impact factor 1.654)

Cantrell, M. and L. Deloney (2007). “Integration of standardized patients into simulation.” Anaesthesiolgy Clin 25: 378-383.

Cioffi, J. (2001). “Clinical simulations: development and validation.” Nurse Education Today 21(6): 477-486.

Cooper S. Cant R. Porter J. Bogossian F. McKenna L. Brady S. Fox-Young S. Simulated based learning in midwifery education: a systematic review. Women and Birth. In Press. 2011. On line at

Endacott R. Cooper S. Scholes J. Kinsman L. McConnell-Henry T. (2010) Final-year nursing students’ ability to assess, detect and act on clinical cues of deterioration in a simulated environment.  Journal of Advanced Nursing. 66(12), 2722–2731

Cooper S. Kinsman L. Buykx P. McConnell-Henry T. Endacott R. Scholes J. (2010) Managing the Deteriorating Patient in a Simulated Environment: Nursing Students’ Knowledge, Skill, And Situation Awareness. Journal of Clinical Nursing. Vol 19, Issue 15, 2309-2318 (Impact Factor 1.194)

Haydon, R. I., M. Donnelly, et al. (1994). “Use of standardized patients to identify deficits in student performance and curriculum effectiveness.” Amer J Surg 168(1): 57-65.

Issenberg, S. B., W. C. McGaghie, et al. (2005). “Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: A BEME systematic review.” Medical Teacher 27(1): 10-28.

Motola, I., L. Devine, Chung, HS, Sullivan, JE, Issenberg, B. (2013). “Simulation in healthcare education: A best evidence practical guide. AMEE Guide No. 82.” Medical Teacher 35: e1511–e1530.

Weaver, A. (2011). “High-Fidelity Patient Simulation in Nursing Education: An Integrative Review.” Nursing Education Perspectives 32(1): 37-40 doi:

Wright, M. C., J. Taekman, et al. (2004). “Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment.” Quality and Safety in Health Care 13 (Suppl. 1): 165-171.

Team work

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (2009). TeamStepps: Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. At: Accessed April 2011, .

Anderson, N. and M. West (1998). “Measuring climate for work group innovation: development and validation of the team climate inventory.” Journal of Organizational Behavior 19(3): 235-258.

Recognising and managing patient deterioration

Ahern, J. and P. Philpot (2002). “Assessing acutely ill patients on general wards.” Nursing standard 16(47): 47.

Australian, Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care. Draft consensus statement: Essential elements for recognising and responding to clinical deterioration.$File/ConConPaper.pdf

DeVita, M. A., G. B. Smith, et al. (2010). “Identifying the hospitalised patient in crisis; A consensus conference on the afferent limb of Rapid Response Systems.” Resuscitation 81(4): 375-382.

NICE Short Clinical Guidelines Technical Team (2006). Acutely ill patients in hospital: recognition of and response to acute illness in adults in hospital.  London.

Purling, A. and L. King (2012). “A literature review: graduate nurses’ preparedness for recognising and responding to the deteriorating patient.” Journal of Clinical Nursing 21(23-24): 3451-3465.


Buykx, P., Kinsman, L., Cooper, S., McConnell-Henry, T., Cant, R., Endacott, R. & Scholes, J. (2011). FIRST2ACT: Educating nurses to identify patient deterioration – a theory-based model for best practice simulation education. Nurse Education Today, 31(7), 687-693

See Website at:

Clinical decision-making

Bond, S. and S. Cooper (2006). “Modelling Emergency Decisions; Recognition Primed Decision Making. The literature in relation to an ophthalmic critical incident.” Journal of Clinical Nursing. 15: 1023-1032.

Cioffi, J. (2000). “Nurses’ experiences of making decisions to call emergency assistance to their patients.” Journal of Advanced Nursing 32(1): 108-114

Cioffi, J. (2001). “A study of the use of past experiences in clinical decision making in emergency situations.” International Journal of Nursing Studies 38(5): 591-599.

Patel, V. and G. Groen (1986). “Knowledge based solution strategies in medical reasoning.” Cognitive Science 10: 91-116.

Measurement tools

Cooper S. Cant R. Sellick K. Porter J. Somers G. Kinsman L. Nestel D.    (2010) Rating medical emergency teamwork performance: development of the Team Emergency Assessment Measure (TEAM). Resuscitation. 81. 446-452. (Impact factor 2.712)

See website at:

Cooper S, Endacott R. Cant R (2010) Measuring non-technical skills in medical emergency care: a review of assessment measures. Open Access Emergency Medicine.  2, 7-16


Tobii eye tracking:

DETECT e-learning program (NSW Health Education and Training Institute)

COMPASS – Early Recognition of the Deteriorating Patient Program (ACT Health, Australia)

ALERT – acute life-threatening recognition and treatment (ALERT Training Centre, Portsmouth, UK)

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care

Scottish intercollegiate guidelines network (SIGN)

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)